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The Ultimate Guide for AWS Glue Interview Questions

Get ready for your interview with these AWS Glue Interview Questions. Covering key topics like ETL processes, data integration, and AWS Glue features, these questions will help you showcase your expertise.

AWS Glue is a powerful, serverless service by AWS that helps you easily manage and integrate data from various sources for analytics, machine learning, and application development. It streamlines data tasks by offering tools to discover, prepare, move, and integrate data.

Here’s how AWS Glue can help you:

  • Discover and Connect to Data: It connects to over 70 different data sources, making it simple to manage your data in one place with a centralized data catalog.
  • Create and Monitor ETL Pipelines: You can visually create, run, and monitor ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) pipelines to move data into your data lakes.
  • Instantly Search and Query Data: Once your data is cataloged, you can quickly search and query it using services like Amazon Athena, Amazon EMR, and Amazon Redshift Spectrum.

AWS Glue brings together essential data integration features into a single service:

  • Data Discovery: Automatically find and catalog your data.
  • ETL Processes: Extract, transform, and load your data efficiently.
  • Data Cleaning and Transformation: Clean and prepare your data for analysis.
  • Centralized Cataloging: Keep all your data organized in one place.

Being serverless, AWS Glue eliminates the need to manage any infrastructure. It can handle various workloads, whether it’s traditional ETL, ELT (Extract, Load, Transform), or real-time streaming data.

AWS Glue seamlessly integrates with other AWS analytics services and Amazon S3 data lakes, making it a versatile tool for all kinds of users, from developers to business analysts. It offers easy-to-use interfaces and job-authoring tools suited for different technical skill levels, ensuring that anyone in your organization can work with data effectively.

AWS Glue Interview Questions

Top AWS Glue Interview Questions

Q1. What is AWS Glue?
Ans: AWS Glue is a fully managed ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) service provided by Amazon Web Services. It simplifies the process of preparing and loading data for analytics. AWS Glue manages the infrastructure, handles scaling, and reduces the time required to analyze data. It includes a data catalog that makes it easy to find, understand, and manage data.

Q2. When should I use AWS Glue?
Ans: AWS Glue should be used when you need to automate the ETL process, especially for data stored across various AWS services like S3, RDS, or Redshift. It’s ideal for preparing data for analytics or machine learning, integrating data from multiple sources, and managing data transformation workloads without manual intervention.

Q3. Describe AWS Glue Architecture?
Ans: The architecture of AWS Glue consists of:

  • Data Catalog: A central repository to store metadata about your data.
  • Crawlers: Tools that scan data stores to determine the schema and create metadata tables.
  • ETL Jobs: Scripts that extract, transform, and load data from the source to the destination.
  • Schedulers: Tools to manage the timing and execution of ETL jobs.
  • Console: An interface to manage and monitor Glue components.

Q4. What are the features of AWS Glue?
Ans: Key features of AWS Glue include:

  • Automated ETL: Simplifies data preparation and loading.
  • Data Catalog: Centralized metadata repository.
  • Scalability: Automatically scales resources based on workload.
  • Job Monitoring: Tools to monitor, manage, and troubleshoot ETL jobs.
  • Support for various data sources: Integrates with multiple AWS data sources and formats.

Q5. When to use a Glue Classifier?
Ans: A Glue Classifier is used to determine the schema of your data during the data cataloging process. Use classifiers when you have custom or complex data formats that AWS Glue’s built-in classifiers cannot handle, ensuring accurate schema detection and metadata creation.

Q6. What are the main components of AWS Glue?
Ans: The main components of AWS Glue are:

  • Data Catalog
  • Crawlers
  • ETL Jobs
  • Triggers
  • Dev Endpoints

Q7. How does AWS Glue relate to AWS Lake Formation?
Ans: AWS Lake Formation builds on AWS Glue by providing additional features for setting up and managing data lakes. It uses Glue’s Data Catalog and ETL capabilities but adds tools for data ingestion, cataloging, transformation, and security management.

Q8. What Data Sources are supported by AWS Glue?
Ans: AWS Glue supports various data sources, including:

  • Amazon S3
  • Amazon RDS
  • Amazon Redshift
  • JDBC-compliant databases
  • AWS DynamoDB
  • Kafka
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • MySQL
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL

Q9. What is AWS Glue Data Catalog?
Ans: The AWS Glue Data Catalog is a centralized metadata repository that stores information about data sources, schemas, and transformations. It helps in discovering and organizing data, enabling easier data management and access.

Q10. Which AWS services and open-source projects use AWS Glue Data Catalog?
Ans: The AWS Glue Data Catalog is used by:

  • Amazon Athena
  • Amazon Redshift Spectrum
  • Amazon EMR
  • Apache Hive
  • Presto

Q11. What are AWS Glue Crawlers?
Ans: AWS Glue Crawlers are tools that scan data stores, infer schemas, and create metadata tables in the Glue Data Catalog. They automatically update the Data Catalog with schema changes and new data partitions.

Q12. What is the AWS Glue Schema Registry?
Ans: The AWS Glue Schema Registry is a part of AWS Glue that allows you to manage and enforce schema definitions for streaming data applications. It helps ensure data compatibility and consistency across different data producers and consumers.

Q13. Why should we use AWS Glue Schema Registry?
Ans: Use the AWS Glue Schema Registry to:

  • Ensure data consistency: Enforce schemas across data producers and consumers.
  • Manage schema evolution: Track and evolve schemas without breaking data pipelines.
  • Enhance data quality: Validate data against defined schemas to prevent errors.

Q14. How does AWS Glue monitor dependencies?
Ans: AWS Glue monitors dependencies through job triggers and workflows. Triggers can start jobs based on specific events or schedules, while workflows manage multi-step ETL processes, ensuring jobs run in the correct sequence.

Q15. How does AWS Glue handle ETL errors?
Ans: AWS Glue handles ETL errors by:

  • Logging errors: Provides detailed logs and metrics for troubleshooting.
  • Retry mechanisms: Retries failed tasks automatically.
  • Error notifications: Configures alerts to notify users of failures.

Q16. How does AWS Glue deduplicate my data?
Ans: AWS Glue deduplicates data using built-in transformations like DropDuplicates. You can apply these transformations during ETL jobs to remove duplicate records based on specified criteria.

Q17. What are ML transforms?
Ans: ML transforms in AWS Glue are machine learning-based transformations that automate data cleaning and preparation tasks, such as finding and de-duplicating matching records across datasets.

Q18. How do ML transforms work?
Ans: ML transforms work by:

  • Training models: Learning from labeled datasets.
  • Applying models: Using the trained models to process and transform new data.
  • Generating results: Producing cleaned and deduplicated datasets.

Q19. When should I use AWS Glue vs. AWS Batch?
Ans: Use AWS Glue for ETL tasks requiring schema discovery, data cataloging, and integration with other AWS analytics services. Use AWS Batch for large-scale batch processing jobs that require custom computing environments and more control over job execution.

Q20. How does AWS Glue Schema Registry maintain high availability for applications?
Ans: The AWS Glue Schema Registry maintains high availability through:

  • Multi-region replication: Ensures data is available across different regions.
  • Fault-tolerant architecture: Designed to handle failures without downtime.
  • Redundancy: Uses redundant infrastructure to maintain service continuity.

Q21. What are AWS Tags in AWS Glue?
Ans: AWS Tags are metadata labels that you can assign to AWS Glue resources for organization, management, and cost tracking. Tags consist of key-value pairs and help in categorizing and filtering resources.

Q22. How does the AWS Glue data catalog work?
Ans: The AWS Glue Data Catalog works by storing metadata about data sources, including table definitions, schemas, and data locations. Crawlers and ETL jobs update the catalog automatically, making it easier to discover and manage data.

Q23. What is the default database in the AWS Glue data catalog?
Ans: The default database in the AWS Glue Data Catalog is a placeholder for all tables created without specifying a database. Users are encouraged to create and use specific databases for better organization.

Q24. What are the points to remember when using tags with AWS Glue?

  • Consistency: Use a consistent tagging strategy across all resources.
  • Meaningful Keys and Values: Ensure tags are descriptive and meaningful.
  • Access Control: Use tags for managing permissions and access.
  • Cost Allocation: Track costs by using tags for billing and reporting.

Q25. Mention some of the significant features of AWS Glue?

  • Automated schema discovery: Uses crawlers to infer data schemas.
  • Centralized data catalog: Manages metadata for all data sources.
  • Serverless: No need to manage infrastructure.
  • Integration: Works with various AWS services like S3, RDS, Redshift.
  • Scalability: Automatically scales to handle varying data volumes.

Q26. How can users create a database in S3?
Ans: Users can create a database in AWS Glue Data Catalog for S3 data by:

  • Using the AWS Glue Console: Navigate to the Data Catalog section, select Databases, and create a new database.
  • Using the AWS CLI: Execute the create-database command with necessary parameters.
  • Using AWS SDKs: Write code to create databases programmatically.

Q27. How can data be added to the S3 bucket?
Ans: Data can be added to an S3 bucket by:

  • Uploading files via the S3 Console: Drag and drop files into the S3 bucket.
  • Using AWS CLI: Execute the s3 cp or s3 sync commands.
  • Using SDKs or APIs: Write code to upload data programmatically.
  • Integrating with AWS Services: Use services like AWS Glue, Kinesis Data Firehose, or AWS Transfer Family.

Q28. What benefits does AWS Glue offer?

  • Reduced Complexity: Automates ETL tasks, reducing manual effort.
  • Cost-Effective: Pay only for the resources used.
  • Scalable: Handles data of any scale, automatically adjusting resources.
  • Integrated Ecosystem: Seamlessly integrates with other AWS services.
  • Improved Data Quality: Ensures data consistency and reliability with features like ML transforms and schema registry.

Q29. What is the process for adding metadata to the AWS Glue Data Catalog?
Ans: Metadata can be added to the AWS Glue Data Catalog by:

  • Running Crawlers: Automatically scan data stores and infer schemas.
  • Manual Entry: Add metadata through the Glue Console or APIs.
  • ETL Jobs: Extract and transform data, then write metadata to the catalog.

Q30. What client languages, data formats, and integrations does AWS Glue Schema Registry support?
Ans: The AWS Glue Schema Registry supports:

  • Client Languages: Java, Python, and .NET.
  • Data Formats: Avro, JSON, Protobuf.
  • Integrations: Apache Kafka, Amazon Kinesis, AWS Lambda, Amazon MSK.

Q31. Does the AWS Glue Schema Registry offer encryption in both transit and storage?
Ans: Yes, the AWS Glue Schema Registry offers encryption in both transit and storage to protect data and ensure security.

Q32. Where do you find the AWS Glue Data Quality scores?
Ans: AWS Glue Data Quality scores can be found in the AWS Glue Data Catalog under the Data Quality tab for each table. These scores are based on rules and metrics defined for data quality assessment.

Q33. In the AWS Glue Catalog, how do you list databases and tables?
Ans: You can list databases and tables in the AWS Glue Catalog by:

  • Using the AWS Glue Console: Navigate to the Databases and Tables sections.
  • Using AWS CLI: Execute get-databases and get-tables commands.
  • Using SDKs: Use functions like get_databases and get_tables.

Q34. How will you modify duplicating data using AWS Glue?
Ans: To modify duplicating data using AWS Glue:

  • Use the DropDuplicates transformation: In ETL scripts, apply the DropDuplicates transformation to remove duplicate records.
  • Filter Rows: Customize scripts to filter out duplicates based on specific criteria.
  • ML Transforms: Use machine learning transforms to detect and remove duplicates.

Q35. How do you identify which version of Apache Spark is AWS Glue using?
Ans: You can identify the version of Apache Spark used by AWS Glue by:

  • Checking AWS Documentation: Refer to the Glue version details in the official AWS documentation.
  • Glue Console: View the Glue job properties where the Spark version is mentioned.
  • Configuration: Look at the Glue job script’s configuration settings.

Q36. How do you handle incremental updates to data in a data lake using Glue?
Ans: Handle incremental updates to data in a data lake using Glue by:

  • Incremental ETL Jobs: Configure Glue jobs to process only new or updated data.
  • Partitioning: Use partition keys to efficiently manage and query incremental data.
  • Change Data Capture (CDC): Implement CDC techniques to capture and apply incremental changes.

Q37. Suppose that you have a JSON file in S3. How will you use Glue to transform it and load the data into an AWS Redshift table?
Ans: To transform a JSON file in S3 and load it into AWS Redshift using Glue:

  • Create a Crawler: Scan the JSON file and add the schema to the Glue Data Catalog.
  • Create an ETL Job: Use the Glue console or script editor to define the transformation logic.
  • Configure Job: Specify the S3 source and Redshift target, including connection details.
  • Run the Job: Execute the ETL job to transform and load the data into Redshift.

Q38. Assume you’re working for a company in the BFSI domain with lots of sensitive data. How can you secure this sensitive information in a Glue job?
Ans: To secure sensitive information in a Glue job for a BFSI company:

  • Encryption: Use encryption for data at rest (S3) and in transit.
  • IAM Policies: Apply strict IAM policies to control access to Glue resources.
  • VPC Endpoints: Run Glue jobs within a VPC for enhanced security.
  • KMS Keys: Use AWS Key Management Service (KMS) for managing encryption keys.
  • Data Masking: Implement data masking techniques to hide sensitive information during processing.

Q39. How would you set up an AWS Glue job to process and transform streaming data from Kinesis Data Streams and store the results in Amazon S3?
Ans: To set up an AWS Glue job for processing and transforming streaming data from Kinesis Data Streams to S3:

  • Create a Kinesis Data Stream: Ensure the stream is configured to receive data.
  • Create a Glue Streaming ETL Job: Use Glue Studio or the console to define the streaming ETL job.
  • Configure Source and Target: Specify Kinesis as the source and S3 as the target.
  • Define Transformations: Write the transformation logic in the Glue job script.
  • Run and Monitor: Execute the job and monitor its performance through Glue Console.

Q40. Your company wants to consolidate data from multiple RDS instances into a central data lake on S3. How would you configure AWS Glue to perform this consolidation while ensuring data integrity and consistency?
Ans: To consolidate data from multiple RDS instances into an S3 data lake using AWS Glue:

  • Create Crawlers: Scan each RDS instance and catalog the data schemas.
  • Set Up ETL Jobs: Define ETL jobs to extract data from RDS, transform as necessary, and load into S3.
  • Use Consistent Schema: Ensure a consistent schema for all data sources during transformation.
  • Transactional Support: Use AWS Glue’s support for transactions to ensure data integrity.
  • Data Validation: Implement validation steps within ETL jobs to check data consistency.
  • Scheduling: Schedule jobs to run at appropriate intervals, maintaining up-to-date data in the data lake.

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