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The Ultimate Guide to Python OOP Concepts for Beginners

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and classes to design software. Objects are self-contained entities that contain both data and behavior. Classes are blueprints for creating objects. OOP has several advantages over other programming paradigms, including:

  • Reusability: OOP code is more reusable than code written using other paradigms. This is because classes can be reused to create multiple objects.
  • Maintainability: OOP code is easier to maintain than code written using other paradigms. This is because classes encapsulate data and behavior, making it easier to understand and modify the code.
  • Modularity: OOP code is more modular than code written using other paradigms. This is because classes can be used to break down a program into smaller, more manageable pieces.

Python OOPs Concepts:

What is OOP?

OOP is a programming paradigm that organizes code by modeling real-world entities as objects. Each object has attributes (data) and methods (functions) that operate on the data. Python’s OOP implementation is intuitive and flexible, making it accessible to learners and powerful for professionals.

1. Class:

A class in Python is like a blueprint for creating objects. It defines the structure and behavior of objects. Think of it as a recipe for baking cookies; the class is the recipe, and the objects are the cookies.


Let’s create a simple Person class:

class Person:
    def __init__(self, name, age):
        self.name = name
        self.age = age

    def greet(self):
        return f"Hello, my name is {self.name} and I'm {self.age} years old."
  • The Person class has attributes name and age.
  • The __init__ method initializes these attributes when an object is created.
  • The greet method returns a greeting message.

Now, let’s create a Person object:

person = Person("Alice", 30)
print(person.greet())  # Output: "Hello, my name is Alice and I'm 30 years old."

2. Object:

An object is an instance of a class. It’s a tangible realization of the class, with its own data and behavior.


Create a Person object:

person = Person("Bob", 25)

person is an object of the Person class, with its unique name and age.

3. Method:

A method in Python is a function defined inside a class. It represents the behavior or actions that objects of the class can perform.


We’ve already seen the greet method in the Person class. When called on a Person object, it returns a greeting message.

print(person.greet())  # Output: "Hello, my name is Bob and I'm 25 years old."

4. Inheritance:

Inheritance allows a class to inherit attributes and methods from another class. It promotes code reusability and hierarchical structuring.


Create a subclass Student that inherits from Person:

class Student(Person):
    def __init__(self, name, age, student_id):
        super().__init__(name, age)
        self.student_id = student_id

    def study(self, subject):
        return f"{self.name} is studying {subject}."
  • Student inherits attributes and methods from Person and adds its own attribute student_id and method study.

Now, create a Student object:

student = Student("Charlie", 20, "S12345")
print(student.greet())  # Output: "Hello, my name is Charlie and I'm 20 years old."
print(student.study("Math"))  # Output: "Charlie is studying Math."

5. Polymorphism:

Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. It enables flexibility and dynamic behavior.


Create a function that works with both Person and Student objects:

def introduce(entity):
    return entity.greet()

print(introduce(person))  # Output: "Hello, my name is Bob and I'm 25 years old."
print(introduce(student))  # Output: "Hello, my name is Charlie and I'm 20 years old."

The introduce function accepts any object with a greet method, demonstrating polymorphism.

6. Data Abstraction:

Data abstraction hides complex implementation details and exposes only necessary functionalities. Classes in Python naturally facilitate abstraction.


Imagine a BankAccount class that abstracts the inner workings of a bank:

class BankAccount:
    def __init__(self, balance):
        self.balance = balance

    def deposit(self, amount):
        self.balance += amount

    def withdraw(self, amount):
        if amount <= self.balance:
            self.balance -= amount
            return "Insufficient funds."

Users interact with the BankAccount class through simple deposit and withdraw methods without needing to understand the banking system’s complexity.

7. Encapsulation:

Encapsulation bundles data (attributes) and methods (functions) within a class. It promotes data protection and control.


In our BankAccount example, both the balance attribute and the deposit and withdraw methods are encapsulated within the class. Users can’t directly access or modify the balance; they must use the provided methods.


Object-Oriented Programming is a powerful paradigm in Python, enabling developers to create well-structured, reusable, and maintainable code. By mastering classes, objects, methods, inheritance, polymorphism, data abstraction, and encapsulation, you gain the skills to tackle complex real-world problems with elegance and efficiency. Start applying these principles in your Python projects, and you’ll unlock a world of possibilities in software development.

Happy coding! ๐Ÿš€๐Ÿ

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